Shahnameh and Iranshahri Thought

شاهنامه و اندیشه ایرانشهری

Shahnameh and Iranshahri Thought

Iranians are among the first nations in history to establish a society based on a system of government based on different ethnic groups. There are few traces of the political thought of this system throughout history due to the invasion of Iran by different ethnic groups. One of the first works mentioned by the political thought that ruled Iran is the inscription of Cyrus, which was written by him after the conquest of Babylon and emphasizes the freedom of tribes in language, belief and religion. Inscriptions left by Darius and Xerxes are other documents that indicate the political thought that ruled ancient Iran. During the Sassanid era, especially during the Anushirvan era, Iranians began to write about the political religion of Iranshahr. Many of the writings have been lost, but some of them have been translated into Arabic or then translated back into Persian. Works of Iranshahri political thought can be seen in the writings of post-Islamic Iranian scholars such as Roozbeh known as Ibn Muqaffa, Ibn Muskawiyyah or Khajeh Nizam al-Mulk. In these works, writings such as Khodainameh, Javadan Kherad, Ardeshir Babakan Karnameh, Tensor’s letter and Anoushirvan’s letters of advice have been mentioned. Considering the similarity of the ideas presented in ancient Iran in these books with the Shahnameh, it seems that Hakim Toos was familiar with these works and used them in the creation of the Shahnameh.
Fereydoni Manesh
For example, in expressing the political thought and mirror of Fereydoun’s rule after overcoming Zahak, Ferdowsi emphasizes the importance of God and religion, the fight against distortion, the position of wisdom, tolerance and efforts to develop the country:
Fereydoun Farrokh was not an angel
Musk and amber were not natural
He found that goodness
You give and take, Fereydoun is you
Fereydoun did what God did
Wash the first world from evil
One was more Zahak ward
Who was cruel and unclean
And the other that Kane questioned his father
The special world is right on itself
The other two are ignorant
Pulled and closed by hand
Happy day in October
Kiani put his hat on his head
Time has turned sad from evil
They took everyone to buy
They paid attention to the judgments
By the way, they made a new tradition

Again, in the story of Fereydoun, who divides his land between his three sons, Selm, Tor and Iraj, Iran reaches Iraj; But the brothers are jealous and destroy him. Later, Iraj’s son – Manouchehr – gets up to his father’s hatred and sits on the throne, eliminating Selm and Tor. Ferdowsi describes Manouchehr’s political thought as follows:
I said on the bed of Sepehr
There is both anger and shouting
It is both a religion and a part of God
It’s both good luck and good luck
God is his sword and his golden shoe
Farazandeh Kaviani Darfash
Well, these arts are one of my servants
I worship the Creator of the universe
Kozo is the throne, from Ovim Sepah
I took refuge in my hat and ran
Let’s go to Fereydoun Farrokh
Niaman was old if we are new
Everyone on Earth Week
Turn away from the path and shine from the religion,
Representative of the suffering of the dervish
To speak the language of your people,
Raise your head to the treasure
To the suffering people representing suffering,
Everyone is an infidel to me
And they are worse than the devil
Not every dinor was on religion
He was from God and cursed by nature
Weigh then the sword
I’m heading for the country out of malice
Here, too, it can be seen that in Manouchehr’s political thought, there is talk of love and affection and anger and war, and of religion, goodness and godliness, the struggle against perversion and insecurity, dealing with the wrongdoers through the need for religiosity and obedience. God emphasizes the unity of religion and politics for the stability of society.
Religion of Kikhosravi
After Siavash was killed in Turan by Afrasiab, his son Kaykhosrow was raised in Turan and then fled to Iran, succeeding his grandfather Kavous. Kaykhosrow expresses the ideology of his rule as follows:
Art is with race and with gem
There are three things, and all three are bound
Once you find all three, you need wisdom
You must know the good and the bad
Because these four come together with one person
Be free from pain and suffering
The student of these four became needless
All luck was constructive from above
Spread around the world
To uproot from the ground
He settled everywhere in ruins
Free all the sorrowful from sorrow
Bring moisture from the spring clouds
Z on the ground rang the bell and grief
The earth is adorned like heaven
He gave forgiveness full of desires
The world was full of goodness and safety
The evil hand was closed badly
The method of Ardeshir Babakan
By overthrowing the Parthians at the hands of Ardeshir Babakan, he bases his political thought on the formation of a strong central government centered on religion:
Chou’s religion’s a prince
Brother Be Kingdom And Religion
It was not a royal throne, it was a religion
Not to be a prince instead
The two foundations are intertwined
Satisfied pre-crushed taffeta
Religion is not necessary for the king
No, he did not create the king
Such guards are each other
You say they are under a tent
Neither that saddle nor this saddle was unnecessary
We saw two wells
God be wise and wise
Two universes all religious men go
Because religion was the king of the guard
You can eat both of them except brother
Everyone is the judge of that prince
Open your tongue, the man is religious
Chu’s religious has a king
Other than Vera Parsani
What did that’s spokesman say?
That, as you can see, is the brain and religion

Then, in a meeting with dignitaries and the people, he states the basics of his political thought and governance on the basis of: rationality, justice, meritocracy, respect for youth and knowledge, education of children, respect for private property, welfare and prosperity. , Peace and moderation, emphasis on knowledge, taxation or tax exemption for areas in crisis.
Advise one of them
You raised your head from the forum
You had a detective in his court
You did not ignore them
Praise be to Shahriar Ardeshir
When you saw the secretary’s door
The secretaries of Chow transplant are my soul
All kings are hidden from me
You went to a prosperous country
You said to the king: You have eaten my skin
Do not sell people to treasure
That no one left Sarai Sponge
All truthfulness and wisdom
Away from the winds of madness and madness
No connection between relatives
Enough of the army that I gave you
Dermish the dervish every month
Don’t think of a man
If you have a prosperous country
Stay settled and happy
And if any dervishes are afraid
We sell gold and wire
Look at the man who knows and learns
What better is a wise and old man
I want the world too
Pleasant and tolerant young man
Knowledgeable knowledgeable youth
Sit down instead of the old man
You touch the things of your people
Whoever he is is a theist
Someone touches something
Who has no interest in knowledge
You are victorious, you shed blood
What if you are on the run?
Chu will kill someone from your enemy
Be kind and resentful
If you reconcile and really
Do not look at his heart from within
Ransom and resent him
Such r near his reputation
Know someone who was homeless
Nova’s absence was an alien fortune
Make stew with a sitting position
The same to be abundant subordinate
Look at Cain who was surprised
That Beatty settled on her own
That’s where you were ruined ground
If you were short on the Andarab River
Tribute in that harvested canvas
You did not eat the land of others
If you do not get knowledge, you will eat
If you are a subordinate, if a prince
Stay mediocre instead
The wise one called you a pure vote
Once upon a time learning
If you want to burn your soul
If he is a child, to be cultured
He misses playing time
The same child to educators
You’s surrendered to Vera Hong An
We sent detectives everywhere
Let us seek the awakening of the world
We will never want anything but good
That makes us the pure cleric of religion
Anoushirvan Political Thought
In Shahnameh, Ferdowsi has arranged Anoushirvan’s political thought in more detail, which shows his access and familiarity with the writings of the Sassanid period, such as “Ardeshir Babakan’s biography” and “Anoushirvan’s letters”. Noshirvan begins his speech with the remembrance of God and calls everything to His command and expresses his plan to carry out God’s command. He emphasizes on effort and avoiding laziness, taking care of people’s affairs, wisdom, avoiding perversion and lies, forgiveness, providing for the people, fighting against tyranny, fighting against wrongdoers, compassion and kindness to people:
The heads of famous people opened their tongues
Remember the good father
Good and bad, shame and name
We are poor from him, happy from him
At his command so bad from the whore wheel
From Ovist Far and Bedoust Zour
We do not pass by his vote and command
Let us not breathe except by His command
To the fog bed, whoever gave
Be in his heart be happy
If it was the king, he would have given it
Let everyone be happy with Dad
From today, do not work until tomorrow
Who knows what tomorrow will be like?
Whenever you are lax at work
The same vote is incorrect
The darker the way you turn
To the right, the narrower way
Do what you do
It’s bad to be slow and sluggish
If the tongue is paired with a lie
Do not take from Sepehri Forough bed
If the king is forgiving
The world is full of goodness and makeup
That we have seen many merchants
We have chosen the path of wisdom and wisdom
To the port on my staff
I did not take my cavalry
We do not miss them one day
Should be called to name and to stigma
All people must and truly
There should be no shortcomings
Whoever is from Iranians
Close on this barge, in between
We must have treasure and soft speech
Chu be a worshiper with votes and shame
When a riot breaks out, someone is subordinate
Do not be wise and pious
Find rewards for what he did wrong
One should not grieve the coward

He divides the country into four parts: the first part is the east of the country or Khorasan; The second includes Qom, Isfahan, Azarbadgan, Armineh (Armenia) and Ardabil; Bahr III of Pars, Ahvaz and Caspian border; And the fourth, Iraq and Rome, determines the tribute for each and puts their security on the agenda. Anoushirvan wrote instructions for each of the four rulers and emphasized obedience to God’s command, struggle against oppression, wisdom, love for the people, expansion, prosperity, avoiding lies and creating an army:
One wrote a letter to Pahlavi
I like you because you hear from me
Let ‘s open the first word
Praise the Creator of the universe
The wise and the wise know it
Thank you Dadar Giti
He shouted at me and he is the judge
Every eternal superiority is superior
To Yazdan, the king and the elder are one
No one works except slavery
He did not tell us except the truth
That the demon brought distortion and shortcomings
You did not cleanse my heart except from love and affection
Open to any work awake
When they bring this letter to you
That auspicious wind blows you
Someone spend a penny on this
To the savage, count one breath
To God, which he gave to Dehim and Farr
If I take it to Arr
Draw all and put this letter forward
Do not be afraid of this Farrokh religion and religion
The earth that he is not God
Die and vera itself and is not a bond,
Lest that canvas be destroyed
Which was in the shadow of the Shah of Iran
Chou was devastated by the canvas in my oven
My full shadow does not shine on him
Open the treasure of what you have to do
Which God has made needless of it
He has given me treasure and the peasant of the corps
I do not want to look at the dinar
General who sells people gold
You should not leave this bar
There was no one in this court
Which is with love and with drawing and way
Arises from telling a lie
Do not take it back on us
Whoever follows the path of God
Wash in dark water
He was tall on this load
He was honored by the priests
It is open to us in truth
What do we do to stare at shortcomings?
Greetings from God and from us
Which was woven from his love and affection
Do not be one of my agents
From my army and servants,
Someone with a sore heart
That he bites me because of his pain
If you are a judge, O prince
Stay at Giti One Monument
In short, the principles of political thought in the Shahnameh are based on the four principles of rationality, justice, prosperity and development, and political legitimacy with a religious orientation. Iranshahri political thought during the Sassanid era saw an emphasis on a prosperous government and support for vulnerable groups, the creation of appropriate divisions of the country, the establishment of security and territorial integrity, the planning and accountability of civil rights, and efforts to build an utopia. Shahnameh, in addition to being a letter of Iranian culture and character and has played a very important role in reviving the Iranian language and identity, also has a special place in the history of Iranshahri political thought. By explaining the political thought of Iranshahr, Ferdowsi tries to renew the idea of ​​the unity of Iran and the formation of a strong central government in order to provide the ground for the cultural continuity of Iran.

Dr. Reza Saidi Firoozabadi – Transplant Surgeon

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