Medicine in Golestan Saadi

Medicine in Golestan Saadi

Much has been said and written about Saadi and his book Golestan. I do not intend to repeat them in this brief, and I will only refer to anecdotes in which there are aspects of medical issues. Interestingly, many issues are still debated and challenged in the modern medical sciences and there is no consensus on them. I do not intend to analyze Sheikh Ajal’s views in any way, and I only refer to his point of view.
Inheritance or nature (environment)
One of the topics that has been discussed for a long time; The effect of heredity or nature has been on human personality and behavior. Some believe that human essence depends on heredity. Some believe in the influence of nature or the environment, and some believe in both.
Saadi has mentioned this issue in several anecdotes and believes in the fundamental role of inheritance.
In the first chapter (character of kings), Saadi narrates the capture of a band of thieves by the sultan who “killed everyone.” In the meantime, “one of the ministers kissed the foot of the king’s throne and interceded” for a young man whose “fruit had just ripened and the green of Golestan had blown a new mourning.”
Malik Roy was confused by this and said:
Do not cast a ray of good on anyone whose foundation is bad
Incompetent education is like a circle on the dome
Cloud if the water of life rains
Never eat willow horn
Do not dwell on the humiliation of the times
Do not eat sugar
The minister discusses with the Sultan here and speaks about the impact of the environment and education:
Lot became the wife of Lot
The family of his prophecy was lost
Dogs of the cave companions a few days
He followed Nikan and became a people
Eventually, the sultan accepts his intercession and gives the minister a chance, but reluctantly: “I forgave even though I did not see fit” and says with a smile:
Eventually the wolf will be born a wolf
Although growing up with a person
After a few years under the tutelage of the minister, this young man finally collaborates with bad friends and kills the minister and his sons, and as a father, he takes the path of robbery. (Page 181)
Or in the seventh chapter (in the effect of education), it tells of the son of a king who is studying and educating with the sons of Adib and did not get anywhere. Malik rebuked the scientist. The scientist says in response: “Education is one and different natures.”
Toxicology and Pharmacology
In the second chapter (in the ethics of the dervishes), Saadi tells the story of a worshiper who wants to lose weight by taking medicine. In order to arouse the king’s pity, “unless he has more faith in him”, but he seems to be taking too much medicine, which leads to his death. (P. 116)
This suggests that some drugs, in varying amounts, have different effects and can even be fatal. It is the basis of pharmacology and toxicology that determines the amount (dose) of each drug for the treatment of diseases and the amounts that cause complications or death.
Diet and mobility
One of the topics that has long been debated in the medical sciences is proper diet. With the advancement of medical science and technology, human life expectancy has doubled in the last hundred years. Acute and infectious diseases have been controlled as the leading causes of death in ancient times, but chronic diseases have become prevalent. Many of these diseases are related to diet and lifestyle; Such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes.
In several anecdotes, Saadi has mentioned the issue of diet and the need to follow it. In the second chapter (in the ethics of the dervishes), Saadi narrates from Abedi that: So in his condemnation he says:
Inside empty food
To see in him the light of knowledge
Empty of wisdom because of it
That fullness from food to nose
In the third chapter (in the virtue of contentment), Saadi mentions a wise physician who sent one of the kings to Muhammad Mustafa, peace be upon him and his family. The doctor spends a year in the Arab world, but no one comes to him. (P. 139)

He asks the Holy Prophet why. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that this tribe is a way to “do not eat until the appetite prevails and there is still an appetite to give up food” and considers this habit as the secret of their health.
In another story, Saadi refers to physical activity in addition to diet.
Eat to live and work
You believe that living is worth living
Or in another anecdote, he quotes one of the sages who forbids his son from eating too much:
Do not eat too much
Not so much from Janet’s weakness
Treatment of wounds and wounds
One of the effects of industrial life today is injuries and bodily injuries. Saadi was also aware of such injuries in his environment due to the conditions of the time. For example, in the second chapter (The Virtue of the Dervishes), he mentions a pious man who died of a leopard wound that had no cure but was thankful that “I am afflicted with a calamity, not a sin” (p. 115).
In the third chapter (The Virtue of Satisfaction), he quotes a miserly merchant asking for a drink from a stingy merchant “for a gentleman who has been wounded by a Tatar war” and is wounded. The patient refuses to be treated, saying, “The sages have said that if they sell the water of life, they should not, for example, buy water on the wise, because dying due to it is a disgrace to life” (p. 136).
In this anecdote, he also indirectly refers to the issue of patient autonomy in accepting or rejecting treatment, which is one of the basic principles of medical ethics in our time.
One of the problems of modern machine life is complications
It is spiritual. In the third chapter (in the virtue of contentment), Saadi mentions a trip to Kish Island and a business meeting that he suffers from psychosis (melancholy) and in his heart he longs for a long journey in the thought of saving money (p. 141), Saadi insists “O Saadi, you should also say a word about what you have seen or heard,” he said.
You heard that in the far reaches of Ghor
The burden falls from the store
Said the narrow-eyed world friend
Or satisfy Khag Gore
Palliative medicine
One of the new branches of medicine is Palliative Medicine. To reduce the suffering of terminally ill patients. Saadi also refers to this issue in the sixth chapter (in the speech of aging).
He has narrations from Damascus and the Majlis and a discussion with scientists when a young man enters and asks: “Is there anyone among them who knows Persian” and puts him on the bed of an old man
The old man says that while dying, he says:
I said a few breaths on the logo
Alas, he took his breath away
Alas for the colorful reader Omar
We took a breath and they said enough
Saadi tries to calm and soothe the old man, quoting Greek philosophers who said, “Arche’s temperament was straightforward, showing confidence in survival, and disease, although Hail did not imply death at all.”
Sheikh Ajal wants to bring a doctor to the old man’s bed, the patient laughs and says:
Tayeb Zarif shakes hands
When he saw the word, the opponent fell
The house is in ruins
Khajeh is in the role of Ivan
Medical complaint
One of the issues of the medical day is the patients’ complaints from the doctor due to the unfavorable results of the treatment.
In the seventh chapter (in the effect of education), Saadi tells about a patient who goes to a veterinarian (Bitar) due to eye pain.
The medicine he prescribes leads to the patient’s blindness. The patient complains to the judge. The judge rules that: “There is no penalty, if you were not a donkey you would not have gone to bed” (p. 184)
No smart voting method
To the basics of serious work
Boryabaf though is a weaver
Do not take him to a silk workshop
In other anecdotes, Saadi also makes some passing references to some other issues such as obesity (p. 176), suicide (p. 124), puberty (p. 158), impotence (p. 183) and sexual disorders (p. 133), which I will not discuss in this article.

Dr. Reza Saidi Firoozabadi – Transplant surgeon

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